Chapter 7

Liquidation.

Chapter 11

Business Bankruptcy.

Chapter 13

Reorganization.

Chapter 11 – Business Bankruptcy

A chapter 11 case is a reorganization bankruptcy, usually of a business. It begins with the filing of a petition with the bankruptcy court serving the area where the debtor has a domicile or residence. A voluntary petition must adhere to the format of Form 1 of the Official Forms prescribed by the Judicial Conference of the United States. Unless the court orders otherwise, the debtor also must file with the court: (1) schedules of assets and liabilities; (2) a schedule of current income and expenditures; (3) a schedule of executory contracts and unexpired leases; and (4) a statement of financial affairs.

The courts are required to charge a case filing fee and a miscellaneous administrative fee, the total of which is currently $1717.

The Voluntary Petition

“A chapter 11 case is a reorganization bankruptcy, usually of a business”

The voluntary petition will include standard information concerning the debtor’s name(s), social security number or tax identification number, residence, location of principal assets (if a business), the debtor’s plan or intention to file a plan, and a request for relief under the chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. Upon filing a voluntary petition for relief under chapter 11 or, in an involuntary case, the entry of an order for relief, the debtor automatically assumes an additional identity as the “debtor in possession.” The term refers to a debtor that keeps possession and control of its assets while undergoing a reorganization under chapter 11, without the appointment of a case trustee. A debtor will remain a debtor in possession until the debtor’s plan of reorganization is confirmed, the debtor’s case is dismissed or converted to chapter 7, or a chapter 11 trustee is appointed. The appointment or election of a trustee occurs only in a small number of cases. Generally, the debtor, as “debtor in possession,” operates the business and performs many of the functions that a trustee performs in cases under other chapters.

Disclosure Statement

Generally, a written disclosure statement and a plan of reorganization must be filed with the court. The disclosure statement is a document that contains information concerning the assets, liabilities, and business affairs of the debtor sufficient to enable a creditor to make an informed judgment about the debtor’s plan of reorganization. The information required is governed by judicial discretion and the circumstances of the case. In a “small business case” the debtor may not need to file a separate disclosure statement if the court determines that adequate information is contained in the plan. The contents of the plan must include a classification of claims and must specify how each class of claims will be treated under the plan. Creditors whose claims are “impaired,” i.e., those whose contractual rights are to be modified or who will be paid less than the full value of their claims under the plan, vote on the plan by ballot. After the disclosure statement is approved by the court and the ballots are collected and tallied, the court will conduct a confirmation hearing to determine whether to confirm the plan.

The Case of Individuals

In the case of individuals, chapter 11 bears some similarities to chapter 13. For example, property of the estate for an individual debtor includes the debtor’s earnings and property acquired by the debtor after filing until the case is closed, dismissed or converted; funding of the plan may be from the debtor’s future earnings; and the plan cannot be confirmed over a creditor’s objection without committing all of the debtor’s disposable income over five years unless the plan pays the claim in full, with interest, over a shorter period of time.

Unlike other chapters, chapter 11 cases are the most likely to parallel commercial litigation matters in their scope and complexity. In fact, a ch11 debtor may often be litigating multiple matters with different parties at the same time. Accordingly, they are usually complex. It is important to have skilled counsel and a dedicated and involved debtor for the best chance of success.

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